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Нанотехнологии: революция или кризис?

На прошлой неделе редакция STRF.ru провела онлайн-дискуссию на тему «Нанотехнологии: революция или кризис?». Читатели задали много вопросов, с которыми можно ознакомиться здесь. Отвечает Роберт Неманич – профессор, глава физического факультета Университета Аризоны, член Американского физического общества, в недавнем прошлом – главный редактор журнала Diamond and Related Materials, член редколлегии Applied Physics и Applied Physics Letters; известен исследованиями в области электронных материалов. Из опасения исказить смысл, мы приводим ответы, как они поступили – на английском языке.

Роберт_Неманич
Наш спикер – Роберт Неманич, глава физического факультета Университета Аризоны, специалист по наноматериалам для электроники

Konstantin Kiselev: Dear Robert, what is your opinion on activity area of Rosnano? Could you compare this organization with similar one? Have you met Russian scientists in any combined research, expertise, conferences etc.? What is their level of competitiveness? Thank you.

Роберт Неманич: Dear Konstantin, it was a pleasure to attend the Rusnanotech conference in Moscow in November of 2010. I found the conference very exciting with first rate research and technology presentations offered in the same meeting. These types of meetings offer opportunities for entrepreneurs and business leaders to learn of the new and developing technologies and also for researchers to learn of the technology and business opportunities for their research innovations. I must admit that I also enjoyed having the opportunity to introduce Nobel Laureate Konstantin Novoselov. While presenting scientific advances and challenges, his presentation displayed the breadth of nanotechnology innovation at this time.

The Rusnanotech meeting was very well organized and it has attracted leading researchers and technology innovators. This combination of leading researchers and technology innovators is not often achieved and the fact that it has become an annual event will only enhance its impact as others learn of the benefits of being part of Rusnanotech.

I have had many opportunities follow the research of many Russian scientists and to work with researchers from leading institutions in Russia (such as the Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Moscow State University, and Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials). In the area of nanotechnology, many of these researchers are playing leadership roles in their fields. They are certainly more than competitive in many areas of research.

How could you explain recent speech of Michail Kovalchuk who has given an interview to Echo Moskvy station. He assumes that nanotechnologies are wide-spread in our life from cell to consciousness. Mr. Kovalchuk is sure about it and gave us the view of interdiscipline research that is worth huge dough. But we haven't any real things yet. Nothing. There are many people and so much money, only.

Роберт Неманич: There are a growing number of new products that are based on nanotechnology, and this should continue to grow in the years ahead. Nano truly means the intersection of physical, chemical and biological sciences and technology. The opportunities are great and new products, new companies and even new industries are now recognized as founded in nanotechnology.

I am not directly aware of Dr. Kovalchuk’s specific suggestions, but I can imagine that he is describing the benefit of interdisciplinary research in nanotechnology.

For any new field the impact may be more than a decade away, but there continues to be great excitement of this field particularly for medical and energy applications and it seems likely there will be a large impact of the research.

Алексей Шабельский, доцент кафедры химии ОГАУ: 1. Не изжил ли себя к настоящему моменту термин «нано»?! Не слишком ли долго мы задержались на уровне «нано» и не пора ли уже вести речь о пико- и фемтотехнологиях? 2. Не существует ли в настоящее время большого количества спекуляций по поводу нанотехнологий? Притягивая за уши приставку «нано» к описанию своих технологий и изобретений, многие стремятся получить инновационное финансирование и т.д. Не дискредитирует ли излишняя популяризация само понятие «нанотехнологии»?

Роберт Неманич: Dear Alex, one of the most exciting aspects of nanoscale science and nanotechnology is that it represents the juncture of physical materials, chemical molecules and biological systems. The combined impact of these three fields of science seems most evident and impactful at the nanometer length scale and much smaller or larger length scales are less optimal for developing these combined and complex systems. However, there seems to be a great opportunity to study the time response of nanostructures and these could be important in the picosecond and femtosecond time domains. I agree that some researchers have not emphasized the importance of combined physical, chemical and biological systems as a key attribute of nanotechnology. The field has grown rapidly, but the most innovative research has probably been at the junction of these three science areas and it has included innovative nanofabrication and nanocharacterization.

With the growth in the field the term «nanotechnology» is not sufficiently descriptive. Leading researchers and technology innovators recognize this and are more specific in describing their advances which fall under the general area of Nanotechnology more readily than any other area of science or technology.

Of course with the growth of the field there is substantial competition for funding.

Михаил Петров, аспирант физического факультета МГУ: Почему приставка «нано» стала так популярна именно в последнее десятилетие? Ведь так или иначе многие идеи и техники существовали задолго до этого. Как вы относитесь к спорам о токсичности нанотехнологий? Ведь сейчас сотни научных групп по всему миру работают над различными медицинскими приложениями нанотехнологий, а другие группы одновременно выпускают статьи, предупреждающие о непредсказуемом и губительном влиянии нанообъектов (размеры которых сопоставимы с клеточными) на живые ткани?

Роберт Неманич: Dear Михаил, many research recognize that much of the excitement of nanotechnology and nanoscience research is because it represents new materials that combine the science of physics, chemistry and biology. It provides truly interdisciplinary advances that are not possible with any one field and the new technologies cross fields from drug delivery, electronic sensors, bio-chemical sensors, and many energy applications. Many of the crucial materials structures and interactions occur on a nanoscale, thus the one term «nano» can describe these many diverse topics.

The medical potential of nanotechnology is now being recognized. In addition, research is also pointing to safety issues related to some nanomaterials. To be most effective, it is appropriate to have parallel or even combined research/technology programs that address both the nanomaterials synthesis along with the potential safety issues.

In this way the introduction of a new material will also provide the safety limitations for its application which can avoid the uncertainty that may develop when there is no safety information.

Екатерина: У нас в стране остро стоит проблема с госфинансированием и поддержкой новых проектов, инноваций и т.д. Также бизнес-структуры очень нелегко привлечь к инвестированию проектов, если инвестор не видит сразу коммерческой выгоды в проекте, а если и видит, то в заоблачном будущем (кроме того, для него важно, чтобы изобретение или новшество смогло получить в идеале выход на мировой рынок и т.д.). Как проблема финансирования инноваций решается за границей? На что прежде всего обращают внимание инвесторы? Как привлечь инвестиции, если проект действительно может быть полезен стране, государству, но правительство страны не показывает сразу заинтересованности в разработке? Как происходят разработки за границей в маленьких и средних городах, которые удалены от столиц? Можно ли за границей при создании нового проекта не обращаться к местным властям за помощью, а обращаться сразу к центральному правительству?

Как вы считаете, что в России мешает взаимодействию трёх главных институтов – наука, государство, бизнес, – без которых невозможно развивать инновации? Есть ли за границей у учёных «психологические барьеры» с тем, что они – учёные – не обязаны беспокоиться о коммерциализации своих разработок? Как вы думаете, как можно обучить учёных в небольших городках и донести до них информацию о том, что они всё-таки должны думать о том, как их разработка может привлечь инвестиционный капитал, как объяснить, что желательно, чтобы учёные знали, что такое бизнес-план (в их же интересах)?

Как вы думаете, как можно обучить «психологически» предпринимательскому настрою инноваторов и учёных – возможно, проводить какие-то семинары, лекции, или вебинары, издавать брошюры и т.д.? Какие инструменты кажутся вам наиболее эффективными для решения этой задачи у нас в стране? Какие сайты или зарубежные книги вы могли посоветовать посмотреть и почитать для повторения современного опыта и актуальных тенденций в России?

Роберт Неманич: Dear Екатерина, you have raised many complicated questions. Financial support for research is complicated in every country that I am aware of. In most countries research support is shared among several if not many government sources and industrial sources. The government agencies have missions that extend from scientific fundamentals to supporting health or energy or the environment or new technologies. Each agency is then able to assess research projects based on its expertise. Many times understanding this patchwork of funding agencies is difficult to recognize and sometimes workshops and seminars can be helpful in connecting appropriate researchers and funding agencies.

Developing entrepreneurial investment is both exciting and at times frustrating. Here it is most important to make sure expectations are matched. Entrepreneurs want to see marketable results or at least the generation of intellectual property (patents) on a time scale that often seems unreasonable for scientists. Bridging this gap of expectations is crucial to building a thriving community of technology-savvy researchers and entrepreneurial investors with the confidence to build new companies and even new industries based on nanotechnology. I might suggest that Rusnanotech could be an excellent host to seminars that provide information on bridging this gap of expectations.

Maria Morozova, a scientific peer-review journal Nanotechnologies in Russia: Dear Robert, what do you think about the urgent problem of safety of nanotechnologies and what is being done to solve it?

Роберт Неманич: Dear Maria, at this time there are organized approaches to consider the safety impact of new materials. Still much research needs to be completed for each new material and each new synthesis method. It is best if the toxicology and safety related research is accomplished in parallel with the new synthesis methods and applications. In these cases there are fewer unknowns and the safety of specific applications can be more carefully assessed.

Алексей Огнёв, корреспондент STRF.ru: 1. Как эксперты оценивают объём рынка нанотехнологий за 2011 год в мире и в США? Какие направления самые прибыльные? Каков минимальный и максимальный прогнозы на ближайшие 5–10 лет? 2. Как вы оцениваете перспективы мирового рынка наноалмазов? 3. Чем именно вам интересны нанотехнологии и физика в целом?

Роберт Неманич: Dear Алексей, I mentioned in another question that nanotechnology is now a very broad field with many possible applications from chemicals, to drugs, to energy and transportation, to information technology, and to environmental technologies. Many of these areas utilize nanotechnology and it is fair to say that all of them will increasingly utilize nanotechnology in the future. It is difficult to define the impact but it is fair to say it will drive the development of almost all changing and new industries.

At this time the field of nanodiamonds seems to be focused on medical or energy applications. Certainly there are strong and leadership research programs in nanodiamond in Russia. I am always interested in the most recent breakthroughs as the materials are improved and new applications are proposed.

My research interests most recently have focused on energy applications of nanostructured materials. Our team at Arizona State University is exploring the use of nanodiamond films to convert heat directly into electrical energy. It is interesting to me because we are learning new physics and new materials science and the combination will be necessary if this does develop into a technology.

Azat Khadiev, graduate student of Kazan State Technical University: Dear Robert, I want to ask you about the future of nanoelectronics. You are a great specialist in this field, and I think that your answer will help me in my research. Our research group is engaged in determining structure of nanotubes of arbitrary composition by electron microdiffraction. Everybody says that nanotubes will be the basic material of future electronics. So, what do you think about this statement? In what field could we also use our methods of determining structure of the nanotubes? Is the nanotubes’ structure so important in applied technologies?

Роберт Неманич: Dear Azat, there is indeed great hope that future electronics will include nanotubes or graphene. Nanotubes may reside in the transistor channel or interconnects or as semitransparent conducting layers in large area electronics. There have also been applications in photonics. As you know some applications will require well described nanotubes while others such as semitransparent conducting layers can support a distribution of different nanotubes. I expect that efficient and effective characterization of the nanotube structure will continue to be important for these applications.

Виктор Щербатский, доцент УрФУ: Возможно ли объединение проблем сверхпроводимости, графена и низкоэнергетических ядерных реакций на основе нанотехнологий? Какими вам видятся новые источники энергии и материалы?

Роберт Неманич: Dear Виктор, your suggestion is somewhat beyond my expertise, but it appears very hopeful that nanocarbon materials will be important in a number of energy applications. Certainly batteries, new capacitor structures and fuel cells could utilize nanocarbon materials.

There is certainly growing recognition throughout the world that clean energy sources and delivery will be crucial for a sustainable world. It seems likely that this will be an important area for nanotechnology.

STRF.ru

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Круглый стол «Международные научные издания: подготовка к публикации и реферативные базы данных»

12 июля 2012 года в Библиотеке иностранной литературы имени М.И. Рудомино прошёл круглый стол на тему «Международные научные издания: подготовка к публикации и реферативные базы данных», организованный журналом Acta Naturae и ООО «Парк–медиа».
В мероприятии приняли участие представители Thomson Reuters, научной электронной библиотеки eLIBRARY.RU, журнала Acta Naturae. Обсуждались вопросы выбора журнала для публикации результатов своих работ, стратегии анализа имеющихся публикаций на интересующую тематику и аспекты подготовки статьи к публикации на английском языке.

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